Welcome to the FALL3D webpage

NOTE: This program is free software. You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.


FALL3D is an Eulerian model for the transport and deposition of volcanic tephra developed at Barcelona Supercomputing Center in collaboration with the Geo-ELFS group at the INGV, Naples, Italy. The model solves the advection-diffusion-sedimentation equation using a finite difference explicit scheme. The main characteristics of the model are:

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  1. Costa, A., Macedonio, G., Folch, A. (2006). A three-dimensional Eulerian model for transport and deposition of volcanic ashes. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 241 (3-4), 634-647.
  2. Folch, A., Jorba, O., and Viramonte, J. (2008). Volcanic ash forecast - application to the May 2008 Chaiten eruption, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 927-940.
  3. Scollo, S., A. Folch, A. Costa (2008). A parametric and comparative study of different tephra fallout models, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 176, 199-211.
  4. Folch A., C. Cavazzoni, A. Costa, G. Macedonio (2008). An automatic procedure to forecast tephra fallout, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 177, 767-777.
  5. Macedonio G., A. Costa, A. Folch (2008). Ash fallout scenarios at Vesuvius: Numerical simulations and implications for hazard assessment, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 178, 366-377.
  6. Folch A., Costa A., Macedonio G. (2009). FALL3D: A Computational Model for Volcanic Ash Transport and Deposition, Comput. Geosci., doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2008.08.008.
  7. Scollo S., Prestifilippo M., Spata G., D'Agostino M., Coltelli M. (2009). Monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 1573-1585.
  8. Costa A., A. Folch, G. Macedonio (2010). A Model for Wet Aggregation of Ash Particles in Volcanic Plumes and Clouds: I. Theoretical Formulation, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 115, B09201, doi:10.1029/2009JB007175.
  9. Folch A., A. Costa, A. Durant,G. Macedonio (2010). A Model for Wet Aggregation of Ash Particles in Volcanic Plumes and Clouds: II. Model Application, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 115, B09202, doi:10.1029/2009JB007176.
  10. Folch A., Sulpizio R. (2010). Evaluating long-range volcanic ash hazard using supercomputing facilities: application to Somma-Vesuvius (Italy), and consequences for civil aviation over the Central Mediterranean Area, Bull. Volc., Vol. 72 (9), 1039-1059, doi:10.1007/s00445-010-0386-3.
  11. Scollo S., A. Folch, M. Coltelli, V.J. Realmuto (2010). Three-dimensional volcanic aerosol dispersal: A comparison between Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) data and numerical simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D24210, doi:10.1029/2009JD013162.
  12. Corradini S., Merucci L., Folch A. (2011). Volcanic Ash Cloud Properties: Comparison Between MODIS Satellite Retrievals and FALL3D Transport Model, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 8, 248-252, doi:10.1109/LGRS.2010.2064156.
  13. Folch A., Costa A., Basart S. (2012). Validation of the FALL3D ash dispersion model using observations of the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull volcanic ash cloud, Atmos. Environ., Vol. 48, 165-183, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.06.072.
  14. Scaini C., Folch A., Navarro M. (2012). Tephra hazard assessment at Concepcion Volcano, Nicaragua, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.01.007.
  15. Costa A., Folch A., Macedonio G., Giaccio B., Isaia R., Smith V.C. (2012) Quantifying volcanic ash dispersal and impact from Campanian Ignimbrite super-eruption, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 39, doi:10.1029/2012GL051605.
  16. Bonasia R., Costa A., Folch A., Capra L., Macedonio G. (2012). Numerical simulation of tephra transport and deposition of the 1982 El Chichon eruption, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.04.006.
  17. Sulpizio, R., Folch, A., Costa, A., Scaini, C., Dellino, P. (2012). Civil aviation hazard assessment of far-range volcanic ash dispersal from a violent Strombolian eruption scenario at Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Naples, Italy, Bulletin of volcanology, doi: 10.1007/s00445-012-0656-3.
  18. Collini, E., Osores, S., Folch, A., Viramonte, J.G., Villarosa, G., Salmuni, G. (2012). Volcanic ash forecast during the June 2011 Cordon-Caulle We Pillan vent eruption, Natural Hazards, 10.1007/s11069-012-0492-y.
  19. Osores, M.S., Folch, A., Collini, E., Villarosa, G., Durant, A., Pujol, G., Viramonte, J.G. (2013). Validation of the FALL3D model for the 2008 Chaiten eruption using field, laboratory and satellite data, Andean Geology, 40 (2): 262-276.

Last updated: June 2013
Send comments or suggestions concerning the code to: arnau.folch@bsc.es